Source code for wradlib.georef.projection

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
# Copyright (c) 2011-2023, wradlib developers.
# Distributed under the MIT License. See LICENSE.txt for more info.

"""
Projection Functions
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

.. autosummary::
   :nosignatures:
   :toctree: generated/

   {}
"""
__all__ = [
    "reproject",
    "create_osr",
    "projstr_to_osr",
    "epsg_to_osr",
    "wkt_to_osr",
    "get_default_projection",
    "get_earth_radius",
    "get_radar_projection",
    "get_earth_projection",
    "get_extent",
    "GeorefProjectionMethods",
]
__doc__ = __doc__.format("\n   ".join(__all__))

import warnings
from functools import singledispatch

import numpy as np
import xradar as xd
from xarray import DataArray, Dataset, apply_ufunc

from wradlib.util import docstring, import_optional

gdal = import_optional("osgeo.gdal")
ogr = import_optional("osgeo.ogr")
osr = import_optional("osgeo.osr")
pyproj = import_optional("pyproj")

# Taken from document "Radarkomposits - Projektionen und Gitter", Version 1.01
# 5th of April 2022
_radolan_ref = dict(
    sphere=dict(
        default=dict(x_0=0.0, y_0=0.0),
        rx=dict(x_0=522962.16692185635, y_0=3759144.724265574),
        de1200=dict(x_0=542962.166921856585, y_0=3609144.7242655745),
        de4800=dict(x_0=543337.16692185646, y_0=3608769.7242655735),
    ),
    wgs84=dict(
        default=dict(x_0=0.0, y_0=0.0),
        rx=dict(x_0=523196.83521777776, y_0=3772588.861931134),
        de1200=dict(x_0=543196.83521776402, y_0=3622588.8619310018),
        de4800=dict(x_0=543571.83521776402, y_0=3622213.8619310018),
    ),
)


[docs]def create_osr(projname, **kwargs): """Conveniently supports the construction of osr spatial reference objects Currently, the following projection names (argument *projname*) are supported: **"aeqd": Azimuthal Equidistant** needs the following keyword arguments: - *lat_0* (latitude at projection center), - *lon_0* (longitude at projection center), - *x_0* (false Easting, also known as x-offset), - *y_0* (false Northing, also known as y-offset) **"dwd-radolan" : RADOLAN Composite Coordinate System** - no additional arguments needed. Polar stereographic projection used by the German Weather Service (DWD) for all Radar composite products. See the final report on the RADOLAN project :cite:`DWD2004` for details. Parameters ---------- projname : str "aeqd" or "dwd-radolan" kwargs : dict depends on projname - see above! Returns ------- output : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` GDAL/OSR object defining projection Examples -------- See :ref:`/notebooks/basics/wradlib_workflow.ipynb#\ Georeferencing-and-Projection`. """ aeqd_wkt = ( 'PROJCS["unnamed",' 'GEOGCS["WGS 84",' 'DATUM["unknown",' 'SPHEROID["WGS84",6378137,298.257223563]],' 'PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],' 'UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433]],' 'PROJECTION["Azimuthal_Equidistant"],' 'PARAMETER["latitude_of_center",{0:-f}],' 'PARAMETER["longitude_of_center",{1:-f}],' 'PARAMETER["false_easting",{2:-f}],' 'PARAMETER["false_northing",{3:-f}],' 'UNIT["Meter",1]]' ) wgs84_wkt = ( 'PROJCS["Radolan Projection",' 'GEOGCS["Radolan Coordinate System",' 'DATUM["unknown based on WGS 84",' 'SPHEROID["WGS 84", 6378137, 298.25722356301]],' 'PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG", "8901"]],' 'UNIT["degree", 0.0174532925199433,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG", "9122"]]],' ) sphere_wkt = ( 'PROJCS["Radolan Projection",' 'GEOGCS["Radolan Coordinate System",' 'DATUM["Radolan_Kugel",' 'SPHEROID["Erdkugel", 6370040, 0]],' 'PRIMEM["Greenwich", 0,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],' 'UNIT["degree", 0.017453292519943295,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG","9122"]]],' ) radolan_ellps = dict(sphere=sphere_wkt, wgs84=wgs84_wkt) meter = 'UNIT["metre", 1,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG", "9001"]],' kmeter = 'UNIT["kilometre", 1000,' 'AUTHORITY["EPSG","9036"]],' polar_stereo_wkt = ( 'PROJECTION["Polar_Stereographic"],' 'PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin", 60],' 'PARAMETER["central_meridian", 10],' 'PARAMETER["false_easting", {0:-.16f}],' 'PARAMETER["false_northing", {1:-.16f}],' "{2}" 'AXIS["Easting", SOUTH],' 'AXIS["Northing", SOUTH]]' ) crs = osr.SpatialReference() if projname == "aeqd": # Azimuthal Equidistant x_0 = kwargs.get("x_0", 0.0) y_0 = kwargs.get("y_0", 0.0) if "x_0" in kwargs: crs.ImportFromWkt( aeqd_wkt.format(kwargs["lat_0"], kwargs["lon_0"], x_0, y_0) ) else: crs.ImportFromWkt( aeqd_wkt.format(kwargs["lat_0"], kwargs["lon_0"], 0.0, 0.0) ) elif "dwd-radolan" in projname: projname = projname.split("-") if len(projname) > 2: ellps = projname[2] unit = meter else: ellps = "sphere" unit = kmeter if len(projname) > 3: grid = projname[3] else: grid = "default" ref = _radolan_ref[ellps][grid] # override false easting/northing x_0 = kwargs.get("x_0", ref["x_0"]) y_0 = kwargs.get("y_0", ref["y_0"]) radolan_wkt = radolan_ellps[ellps] + polar_stereo_wkt.format(x_0, y_0, unit) crs.ImportFromWkt(radolan_wkt) else: raise ValueError( f"No convenience support for projection {projname}, " "yet.\nYou need to create projection by using " "other means..." ) return crs
[docs]def projstr_to_osr(projstr): """Transform a PROJ string to an osr spatial reference object Parameters ---------- projstr : str PROJ string describing projection Returns ------- crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` GDAL OSR SRS object defining projection Examples -------- See :ref:`/notebooks/fileio/radolan/radolan_grid.ipynb#PROJ`. """ crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.ImportFromProj4(projstr) try: crs.AutoIdentifyEPSG() except RuntimeError: pass if crs.Validate() == ogr.OGRERR_CORRUPT_DATA: raise ValueError( "projstr validates to 'ogr.OGRERR_CORRUPT_DATA'" "and can't be imported as OSR object" ) return crs
[docs]@singledispatch def reproject(*args, **kwargs): """Transform coordinates from a source projection to a target projection. Call signatures:: reproject(C, **kwargs) reproject(X, Y, **kwargs) reproject(X, Y, Z, **kwargs) *C* is the np array of source coordinates. *X*, *Y* and *Z* specify arrays of x, y, and z coordinate values Parameters ---------- C : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Array of shape (...,2) or (...,3) with coordinates (x,y) or (x,y,z) respectively X : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Array of x coordinates Y : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Array of y coordinates Z : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Array of z coordinates Keyword Arguments ----------------- src_crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` defaults to EPSG(4326) trg_crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` defaults to EPSG(4326) area_of_interest : tuple tuple of floats (WestLongitudeDeg, SouthLatitudeDeg, EastLongitudeDeg, NorthLatitudeDeg), only gdal>=3 Returns ------- trans : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Array of reprojected coordinates x,y (...,2) or x,y,z (...,3) depending on input array. X, Y : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Arrays of reprojected x,y coordinates, shape depending on input array X, Y, Z: :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` Arrays of reprojected x,y,z coordinates, shape depending on input array Examples -------- See :ref:`/notebooks/georeferencing/georef.ipynb`. """ if len(args) == 1: C = np.asanyarray(args[0]) cshape = C.shape numCols = C.shape[-1] C = C.reshape(-1, numCols) if numCols < 2 or numCols > 3: raise TypeError("Input Array column mismatch to 'reproject'") else: if len(args) == 2: X, Y = (np.asanyarray(arg) for arg in args) numCols = 2 elif len(args) == 3: X, Y, Z = (np.asanyarray(arg) for arg in args) zshape = Z.shape numCols = 3 else: raise TypeError("Illegal arguments to 'reproject'") xshape = X.shape yshape = Y.shape if xshape != yshape: raise TypeError("Incompatible X, Y inputs to 'reproject'") if "Z" in locals(): if xshape != zshape: raise TypeError("Incompatible Z input to 'reproject'") C = np.concatenate( [X.ravel()[:, None], Y.ravel()[:, None], Z.ravel()[:, None]], axis=1 ) else: C = np.concatenate([X.ravel()[:, None], Y.ravel()[:, None]], axis=1) src_crs = kwargs.get("src_crs", get_default_projection()) trg_crs = kwargs.get("trg_crs", get_default_projection()) area_of_interest = kwargs.get("area_of_interest", None) axis_order = osr.OAMS_TRADITIONAL_GIS_ORDER src_crs.SetAxisMappingStrategy(axis_order) trg_crs.SetAxisMappingStrategy(axis_order) options = osr.CoordinateTransformationOptions() if area_of_interest is not None: options.SetAreaOfInterest(*area_of_interest) ct = osr.CreateCoordinateTransformation(src_crs, trg_crs, options) trans = np.array(ct.TransformPoints(C)) if len(args) == 1: # here we could do this one # return(np.array(ct.TransformPoints(C))[...,0:numCols])) # or this one trans = trans[:, 0:numCols].reshape(cshape) return trans else: X = trans[:, 0].reshape(xshape) Y = trans[:, 1].reshape(yshape) if len(args) == 2: return X, Y if len(args) == 3: Z = trans[:, 2].reshape(zshape) return X, Y, Z
@reproject.register(DataArray) @reproject.register(Dataset) def _reproject_xarray(obj, **kwargs): """Transform coordinates from current projection to a target projection. Parameters ---------- obj : :py:class:`xarray:xarray.DataArray` | :py:class:`xarray:xarray.Dataset` Keyword Arguments ----------------- trg_crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` coords : dict Mapping of coordinates. area_of_interest : tuple tuple of floats (WestLongitudeDeg, SouthLatitudeDeg, EastLongitudeDeg, NorthLatitudeDeg) Returns ------- obj : :py:class:`xarray:xarray.DataArray` | :py:class:`xarray:xarray.Dataset` reprojected Dataset/DataArray Examples -------- See :ref:`/notebooks/georeferencing/georef.ipynb`. """ obj = obj.copy() coords = kwargs.pop("coords", None) args = [] if coords is None: coords = dict(x="x", y="y", z="z") args.append(obj[coords.get("x")].reset_coords(drop=True)) args.append(obj[coords.get("y")].reset_coords(drop=True)) if "z" in coords: args.append(obj[coords["z"]].reset_coords(drop=True)) input_core_dims = [list(arg.dims) for arg in args] output_core_dims = input_core_dims # extract crs from obj if "spatial_ref" in obj.coords: proj_crs = xd.georeference.get_crs(obj) obj_crs = wkt_to_osr(proj_crs.to_wkt()) else: obj_crs = None # user overrides? src_crs = kwargs.get("src_crs") if src_crs is None: if obj_crs is None: src_crs = get_default_projection() else: src_crs = obj_crs else: if obj_crs is not None: warnings.warn( "src_crs kwarg is overriding 'spatial_ref'-coordinate'", stacklevel=4 ) kwargs.setdefault("src_crs", src_crs) trg_crs = kwargs.setdefault("trg_crs", get_default_projection()) out = apply_ufunc( reproject, *args, input_core_dims=input_core_dims, output_core_dims=output_core_dims, dask="parallelized", kwargs=kwargs, dask_gufunc_kwargs=dict(allow_rechunk=True), ) for c, v in zip(coords, out): obj = obj.assign_coords({c: v}) # set new crs to obj if "spatial_ref" in obj.coords: proj_crs = pyproj.CRS.from_wkt(trg_crs.ExportToWkt(["FORMAT=WKT2_2018"])) obj = xd.georeference.add_crs(obj, crs=proj_crs) return obj
[docs]def get_default_projection(): """Create a default projection object (wgs84)""" crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.ImportFromEPSG(4326) return crs
[docs]def epsg_to_osr(epsg=None): """Create osr spatial reference object from EPSG number Parameters ---------- epsg : int EPSG-Number defining the coordinate system Returns ------- crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` GDAL/OSR object defining projection """ crs = None if epsg: crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.ImportFromEPSG(epsg) else: crs = get_default_projection() return crs
[docs]def wkt_to_osr(wkt=None): """Create osr spatial reference object from WKT string Parameters ---------- wkt : str WTK string defining the coordinate reference system Returns ------- crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` GDAL/OSR object defining projection """ crs = None if wkt: crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.ImportFromWkt(wkt) else: crs = get_default_projection() if crs.Validate() == ogr.OGRERR_CORRUPT_DATA: raise ValueError( "wkt validates to 'ogr.OGRERR_CORRUPT_DATA'" "and can't be imported as OSR object" ) return crs
[docs]@singledispatch def get_earth_radius(latitude, *, sr=None): """Get the radius of the Earth (in km) for a given Spheroid model (sr) at \ a given position. .. math:: R^2 = \\frac{a^4 \\cos(f)^2 + b^4 \\sin(f)^2} {a^2 \\cos(f)^2 + b^2 \\sin(f)^2} Parameters ---------- sr : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` spatial reference latitude : float geodetic latitude in degrees Returns ------- radius : float earth radius in meter """ if sr is None: sr = get_default_projection() radius_e = sr.GetSemiMajor() radius_p = sr.GetSemiMinor() latitude = np.radians(latitude) radius = np.sqrt( ( np.power(radius_e, 4) * np.power(np.cos(latitude), 2) + np.power(radius_p, 4) * np.power(np.sin(latitude), 2) ) / ( np.power(radius_e, 2) * np.power(np.cos(latitude), 2) + np.power(radius_p, 2) * np.power(np.sin(latitude), 2) ) ) return radius
@get_earth_radius.register(Dataset) @get_earth_radius.register(DataArray) def _get_earth_radius_xarray(obj, *, sr=None): """Get the radius of the Earth (in km) for a given Spheroid model (sr) at \ a given position. .. math:: R^2 = \\frac{a^4 \\cos(f)^2 + b^4 \\sin(f)^2} {a^2 \\cos(f)^2 + b^2 \\sin(f)^2} Parameters ---------- obj : :py:class:`xarray:xarray.DataArray` | :py:class:`xarray:xarray.Dataset` sr : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` spatial reference Returns ------- radius : float earth radius in meter """ latitude = obj.latitude.values if sr is None: sr = get_default_projection() radius_e = sr.GetSemiMajor() radius_p = sr.GetSemiMinor() latitude = np.radians(latitude) radius = np.sqrt( ( np.power(radius_e, 4) * np.power(np.cos(latitude), 2) + np.power(radius_p, 4) * np.power(np.sin(latitude), 2) ) / ( np.power(radius_e, 2) * np.power(np.cos(latitude), 2) + np.power(radius_p, 2) * np.power(np.sin(latitude), 2) ) ) return radius
[docs]def get_earth_projection(model="ellipsoid"): """Get a default earth projection based on WGS Parameters ---------- model : str earth model used, defaults to `ellipsoid`: - 'ellipsoid' - WGS84 with ellipsoid heights -> EPSG 4979 - 'geoid' - WGS84 with egm96 geoid heights -> EPSG 4326 + 5773 - 'sphere' - GRS 1980 authalic sphere -> EPSG 4047 Returns ------- crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` projection definition """ crs = osr.SpatialReference() if model == "sphere": crs.ImportFromEPSG(4047) elif model == "ellipsoid": crs.ImportFromEPSG(4979) elif model == "geoid": wgs84 = osr.SpatialReference() wgs84.ImportFromEPSG(4326) egm96 = osr.SpatialReference() egm96.ImportFromEPSG(5773) crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.SetCompoundCS("WGS84 Horizontal + EGM96 Vertical", wgs84, egm96) else: raise ValueError(f"wradlib: Unknown model='{model}'.") return crs
[docs]def get_radar_projection(site): """Get the native radar projection which is an azimuthal equidistant projection centered at the site using WGS84. Parameters ---------- site : sequence the WGS84 lon / lat coordinates of the radar location Returns ------- crs : :py:class:`gdal:osgeo.osr.SpatialReference` projection definition """ crs = osr.SpatialReference() crs.SetProjCS("Unknown Azimuthal Equidistant") crs.SetAE(site[1], site[0], 0, 0) return crs
[docs]def get_extent(coords): """Get the extent of 2d coordinates Parameters ---------- coords : :class:`numpy:numpy.ndarray` coordinates array with shape (...,(x,y)) Returns ------- extent : tuple (xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax) """ xmin = coords[..., 0].min() xmax = coords[..., 0].max() ymin = coords[..., 1].min() ymax = coords[..., 1].max() return xmin, xmax, ymin, ymax
[docs]class GeorefProjectionMethods: """wradlib xarray SubAccessor methods for Georef Projection Methods."""
[docs] @docstring(_get_earth_radius_xarray) def get_earth_radius(self, *args, **kwargs): if not isinstance(self, GeorefProjectionMethods): return get_earth_radius(self, *args, **kwargs) else: return get_earth_radius(self._obj, *args, **kwargs)
[docs] @docstring(_reproject_xarray) def reproject(self, *args, **kwargs): if not isinstance(self, GeorefProjectionMethods): return reproject(self, *args, **kwargs) else: return reproject(self._obj, *args, **kwargs)